In nuclear power stations there are a lot of key structures and parts working under the conditions of high temperature, high pressure, radiation, and etc. Thermal fatigue cracks often occur on the surfaces of the structures and parts. Due to the strict requirement for structure materials in nuclear power equipment, the traditional technologies, such as surface coating, are hardly used to protect the thermal fatigue cracks in nuclear equipment, which is one of the most difficult technology problems in the world. In this project, we focus on the study of the thermal fatigue protection problem in nuclear power equipment. Taking bionic optimization design,multiscale numerical analysis and experimental research as the main research methods, we investigate the scientific problems related to the crack initiation, propagation and protection technology. Inspired by the biomaterials, a new bionic material will be designed and manufactured by means of optimization design of the multiscale surface microstructure and sub-surface microstructure, so that the thermal shock resistance and the thermal fatigue life of the bionic material can be enhanced substantially, getting twofold results with half the effort. The final purpose is to provide an innovated bionic protection technology for the thermal fatigue cracks in nuclear power stations. This technology is believed helpful for the sustainable development of the Chinese nuclear power technology.